Na-Ion Batteries

Mojtaba Mirzaeian, Qaisar Abbas, Michael R.C. Hunt, Alina Galeyeva, Rizwan Raza

Attributable to increase demand of electrical energy storage (EES), various rechargeable battery systems have been installed successfully, with lithium ion batteries (LIBs) leading the way. However, LIBs are facing resources limitations due to inadequate availability and uneven geological distribution of lithium which makes it difficult especially for applications associated with grid-scale battery systems. Sodium ion batteries are considered an attractive alternative due to similar performance characteristics and extensive availability of sodium at considerably reduced cost. Furthermore, development in battery technology for SIBs has been remarkably fast due to similarity with LIBs. However, SIBs suffer from inferior cycleability, poor power capability and lower energy density, which are the benchmark requirements for widespread commercialization necessitating further research drive. Over the past two decades, tremendous efforts have been made to enhance their performance by introducing new materials (electrode/electrolyte) and by optimizing their composition. In this brief article working principle of SIBs, their comparison with LIBs, recent developments in electrode/electrolyte materials and future outlook will be discussed.

High‐Power Sodium‐Ion Batteries and Sodium‐Ion Capacitors

Binson Babu, Andrea Balducci

Sodium is one of the most abundant elements in the Earth, and it is much cheaper than lithium and displays a number of properties which are making it very appealing for application in energy storage devices. For this reason, over the last 20 years, an increasing number of investigations have been dedicated to the development of sodium‐based batteries. Among these batteries, sodium‐ion batteries (NIBs) are presently regarded as the most promising emerging technology alternative to lithium‐ion batteries (LIBs), and an increasing number of studies are dedicated to these systems. This chapter analyzes the high‐power performance of several anodic and cathodic materials of NIBs and compares to that of LIBs materials. It addresses the use of these materials in sodium‐ion capacitors and their impact on the performance of these high‐power devices.

Cathode active materials for sodium-ion batteries

Maider Zarrabeitia, Wenhua Zuo, Stefano Passerini

Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), which commercialization may start already in 2023, as highlighted, are postulated as the most attractive economical and sustainable alternatives to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for light electromobility and large-scale stationary applications. However, the electrochemical performance of SIBs must be further improved through specific strategies that optimize the cathode active materials in terms of energy density and long-term cycling in line with maintaining their environmental competitiveness. This chapter highlights the most recent developments and pertinent strategies to enhance sodium cathode active materials.

Energy and environmental applications of graphene and its derivatives

N. Saba, M. Jawaid

Graphene is the miracle, promising youngest carbon allotrope nanomaterial having 2-D honeycomb structure with sp2 hybridization. The growing global concerns toward enormous energy demands from renewable, clean energy sources and carriers empowered the utilization of graphene and its derivatives as energy carriers like lithium/sodium batteries, hydrogen storage, ultracapacitors, and photosensitizers in photovoltaic devices and in solar energy conversion. Graphene-based materials, graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (RGO), graphite, and graphite oxide, besides functionalized graphene with metal oxides, metals, polymer, organic molecules, and semiconductor metal oxides, are also gaining sharp attention as novel and ideal materials for environmental pollution detection and sensing applications that threaten ecological balance and human health. Major environmental applications involve water treatment, gas sensing, heavy metal ion detection, and chemo-/biosensor applications for contaminant monitoring or removal. Graphene also shows extensive applications in DNA sensing, electrocatalysis, bioculturing, and flexible electronics. The characteristics and extensive applications of graphene are ascribed owing to its unique physicochemical properties involving exceptionally high surface area, thermal conductivity, high adsorption capacity, chemical stability, high electron mobility, and significant mechanical strength.

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